Stuttering & Down Syndrome Abstracts

Journal of Fluency Disorders 37(4): 253-262 (2012 Dec)

Stuttering treatment for a school-age child with Down syndrome: A descriptive case report

Jessica Harasym & Marilyn Langevin
Institute for Stuttering Treatment & Research (ISTAR), Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, Canada

Little is known about optimal treatment approaches and stuttering treatment outcomes for children with Down syndrome. AIMS AND METHOD: The purpose of this study was to investigate outcomes for a child with Down syndrome who received a combination of fluency shaping therapy and parent delivered contingencies for normally fluent speech, prolonged speech, and stuttered speech. RESULTS: In-clinic speech measures obtained at post-treatment and at 4 months follow-up reflected improvements in fluency of 89.0% and 98.6%, respectively. The participant's beyond-clinic follow-up sample reflected an improvement of 95.5%. Following treatment, the participant demonstrated improved self-confidence, self-esteem, and improved participation and functioning at school. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that fluency shaping with parental contingencies may be a viable treatment approach to reduce stuttering in children with Down syndrome. Future research using an experimental research design is warranted. Educational objectives: Readers will be able to describe (a) prevalence estimates of stuttering in individuals with Down syndrome, (b) the main components of a fluency shaping program for a child with Down syndrome who stutters and has co-occurring speech and language delays, and (c) speech and parent-, teacher-, and self-report treatment outcomes.
Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation 13 (1-2): 31-45 (2012 Mar)

Incidence of Stuttering in School-Age Children with Down Syndrome

Salihovic, Nevzeta¹; Hasanbašic, Selma²; Begic, Leila¹
¹Faculty of Education and Rehabilitation, University of Tuzla; ²Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation for Children with Intellectual Disabilities "Mjedenica", Sarajevo

The main purpose of this study was to examine the incidence (frequency) and stuttering severity in the school-age children with Down syndrome. The sample was consisted of 37 school-age children with Down syndrome, both male and female. The study was conducted in the following institutions: Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation for Children with Intellectual Disabilities "Mjedenica"; Centre for Education, Training and Employment of Mentally Retarded Children, Children with Autism and Cerebral palsy "Vladimir Nazor" in Sarajevo; Primary School of Special Education "Zenica"; Primary school "Kovacici" Sarajevo; "Association of United Civic Actions - DUGA" in Sarajevo; and The Association "Be my friend" in Ilijaš. All of the subjects were individually examined. The results showed that 13,51 % of the children with Down syndrome stuttered, and the total result of stuttering severity indicates a moderate stuttering. These results show that children with Down syndrome should be enrolled intensively in speech therapy in order to help them overcome their stuttering, to facilitate their everyday communication and to teach them how to cope with stuttering.
5th World Congress on Fluency Disorders Dublin, Ireland, July 25-28, 2006

Language and Dysfluency in Two Young Children with Down Syndrome

Monica Bray

Information about the onset and development of dysfluency in Down syndrome is severely limited. We know that a high percentage of adults with the syndrome are dysfluent (45%), but we have no knowledge of the links between childhood dysfluency and its persistence into adulthood. In-depth case studies of two young children who have been recently identified as stuttering by their parents will be presented. Linguistic and phonetic analysis of the children's speech and language from samples collected over a 9 month period, as well as the family histories and coping styles will be discussed. The findings will be linked to current linguistic and neurobiological ideas about stuttering.
5th World Congress on Fluency Disorders Dublin, Ireland, July 25-28, 2006

Speech Dysfluencies in People with Down's Syndrome

Kurt Eggers & Chris De Bal

Most of the children with Down's syndrome have speech and language disorders and show a higher frequency of speech dysfluencies. Depending on the study, prevalences as high as 77% for stuttering and/or cluttering are reported. The literature is somewhat ambiguous in labelling these dysfluencies: stuttering, cluttering, or as some authors suggest, an increased amount of normal dysfluencies. In this study the speech of 150 people with Down's syndrome, within 3 different age categories (<12;11, 13y.-21;11, ≥22) will be assessed. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the dysfluencies will be performed. We will report on our preliminary findings of a possible link between language level, motor aspects and speech dysfluencies.
X International Congress for the Study of Child Language Berlin, July 25-29, 2005

Characteristics of Stuttering in Subjects with Down Syndrome

Bárbara Backes, Gabriela Wolff, Denise Inazacki Rangel, Letícia Pacheco Ribas
Feevale University Center, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

The Down Syndrome is presented as a genetic error of 21º pair of chromosomes. The carrying subjects of this syndrome present specific physical characteristics and delay in the motor and linguistic development. This delay in the development of the language is characterized for alterations in the levels phonetic-phonological, semantic and morfosintatic. The damage in the psychosocial performance of these individuals is not frequent, thus showing a good pragmatic level, that many times compensate to little grammatical ability. Moreover, it is possible to observe in many cases, the presence of stuttering in the standards of sequence and speaks rhythm, characterized for repetitions, prolongations, blockades and pauses. Therefore, it is intended to display in this work the story of two cases where associate with the stuttering has linguistic alterations. The two subjects had passed for an evaluation of the levels morfosintatic and phonological, of the fluency and the verbal motricity, complementing these data with the results gotten in selection of the auditory processing. Subject 1, with 14 years, it presents ample vocabulary, speed of speaks increased, difficulty in the sequence of verbal and not-verbal sounds and stuttering characterized for repetitions, prolongations and blockades, without association of movements. Subject 2, with 7 years, it shows phonological and pragmatic delay of the language, auditory comprometimento in virtue of blockage in the average ear (repetition average otitis) and stuttering characterized for repetitions, prolongations and pauses. In both the cases have alterations in tonus and mobility of structures of face. It is considered to analyze the presence of the stuttering for the lack of specialization of the left hemisphere (dominant for the language), for motor aspects of it says e, more specifically, for hiperactivation of circuits of the right hemisphere (not-dominant for the language), that it is responsible for the automatism of the modification in the speed of speaks and aspects of the prosody. The relation of these modules with the syntax and phonology, including the aspects suprasegmentals, also it is brought to the present study with the objective to show the relation between what it is verbal and not-verbal in the use of the language, demonstrating that therapeutical activities that aim at the integration of these can increase the effectiveness of the communication.
J Ment Defic Res 34 (5): 437-43 (1990 Oct)

Specific Motor Abilities Associated with Speech Fluency in Down's Syndrome

Devenny DA; Silverman W; Balgley H; Wall MJ; Sidtis JJ
Department of Psychology, NYS Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island 10314

Eight adult male stutterers with Down's syndrome (DS) were compared with a matched group of fluent speakers with DS on verbal and manual motor production tasks at two levels of complexity. The simpler tasks involved diadochokinetic rate (syllable repetition) and finger tapping; the more complex tasks involved the imitation of sentences and placing pegs in the grooved pegboard. On both verbal and manual tasks, stutterers were faster on the simpler but slower on the more complex tasks than were the fluent speakers. The findings suggest that stutterers with DS have a different motor organization than fluent speakers with DS.
J Ment Defic Res 34 (3): 253-60 (1990 Jun)

Speech Dysfluency and Manual Specialization in Down's Syndrome

Devenny DA; Silverman WP
Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island. 10314

The relationship between speech dysfluency and manual lateralization was studied in 31 adults with Down's syndrome. Analysis of speech samples from videotapes indicated that frequency of dysfluency ranged from normal to very severe; 42% of the subjects were stutterers. Manual lateralization was measured by the demonstrated use of five objects (pencil, comb, toothbrush, ball and scissors); 61% of the subjects had a clear right-hand preference, 13% a left-hand preference, and the remaining subjects (39%) were mixed-handed. Increased dysfluency was associated with increased non-right-handedness, and this finding could not be explained by reference to either generalized linguistic or intellectual deficits. Results suggest individual variation in the speech motor control system in adults with Down's syndrome which may be associated with anomalous cerebral dominance.
Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 16 (2/3): 89-104 (1972)

Stuttering in Down's Syndrome

Preus, Alf

In several earlier investigations an exceptionally high frequency of stuttering in individuals with Down's syndrome has been found. It has been doubted whether these symptoms represent genuine stuttering, or if it is the question of stuttering-like behavior, particularly cluttering. Statistical analysis showed the occurrence of stuttering and cluttering to be uncorrelated.