: J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Sep;13 Suppl 2:1035-44. Related Articles, Links Growth hormone safety update from the National Cooperative Growth Study. Maneatis T, Baptista J, Connelly K, Blethen S. Drug Safety, Department of Medical Affairs, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. maneatis.tom@gene.com We reviewed adverse event (AE) data in the National Cooperative Growth Study from start-up (1985) until January 1, 1999. Enrollment was 33,161. A total of 2,632 AE reports were received; 863 were serious events, with 156 deaths. The most common cause of death was recurrence of intracranial neoplasm. There were 20 reports of leukemia, and the standard morbidity ratio (SMR) was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.20-1.86) for the four cases without risk factors. There were 35 reports of extracranial nonleukemic malignancy, and the SMR was 0.44 (95% CI: 0.24-0.74) for the 14 cases without risk factors. The recurrence rate for all brain tumors present at baseline was 7.6%, and for craniopharyngiomas, 6.4%. There were 49 reports of intracranial hypertension (20 patients had papilledema), 68 reports of diabetes/hyperglycemia, 45 of slipped capital femoral epiphysis, 136 of scoliosis, and five of pancreatitis. There was no evidence of increased incidence of leukemia or extracranial nonleukemic malignancies among patients without prior risk factors. Intracranial hypertension does not necessarily occur early in growth hormone therapy. Other findings were consistent with past observations. : J Pediatr. 1997 Jul;131(1 Pt 2):S32-6. Related Articles, Links Risk of leukemia in children treated with human growth hormone: review and reanalysis. Allen DB, Rundle AC, Graves DA, Blethen SL. Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, USA. BACKGROUND: Data have suggested that any increased incidence of leukemia in growth-hormone (GH)-treated patients was limited to those with known risk factors for leukemia. However, previous studies may have overestimated the numbers of patient-years of risk by not excluding data from "positive-risk-factor" patients. This risk was reanalyzed by using data on children in the National Cooperative Growth Study (NCGS), with correction for this possible confounding factor. METHODS: The risk of leukemia in GH-treated patients without known risk factors was determined by using patient-years of GH therapy and patient-years since first exposure to GH therapy and the values obtained were compared with values from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program of the National Cancer Institute. RESULTS: Three cases of leukemia in patients without known risk factors were found in the NCGS database; 3.42 cases would be expected in the 119,846 patient-years in the analysis using time since GH exposure. Two of these cases of leukemia occurred during GH therapy (67,773 patient-years); 2.13 cases would be expected. CONCLUSION: Excluding data on patients with known risk factors for leukemia provides a more accurate estimate of the risks in GH-treated patients. The incidence of leukemia in these patients is comparable to that in the general population of age-matched children. Watanabe S, Tsunematsu Y, Komiyama A, Fujimoto J. 1988 Leukemia in patients treated with growth hormone [Letter]. Lancet. 1:11591160.[Medline]