Inclusion & Down Syndrome Abstracts

Journal of Research in Childhood Education 16 (1): 28-38 (2001)

What general educators have to say about successfully including students with Down syndrome in their classes

Wolpert, Gloria

The purpose of this study was to review the instructor and classroom management procedures of those general education teachers involved in the inclusion of children with Down syndrome who have been rated as successful by the children's parents. Using a parent affiliate list provided by the National Down Syndrome Society, 250 questionnaires were mailed to families in the United States. From this group, 195 parents indicated that they thought their children were included successfully, and they then forwarded questionnaires to their children's general education inclusion teachers. Of those, 189 teachers, from kindergarten through 12th grade, returned their questionnaires. According to the reports from the teachers designated by parents as successfully including students with Down syndrome in their classes, praise was the best motivator for the children with Down syndrome and the most effective learning methods were individual and small-group instruction, hands-on activities, and the use of computers fo r practice and drill. When asked for recommendations to improve the inclusion model, the teachers suggested more planning time to modify assignments and tests, more individual instruction time built into the schedule, and more information on learning characteristics of children with Down syndrome.
Special Children 114: 13-16 (1998 Oct)

Including Children with Down's Syndrome

Lorenz, Stephanie
Downright. 26 Worsley Rd., Worsley, Manchester M28 2GQ England

As the inclusive philosophy of the latest UK Government Green paper gathers momentum, more staff in mainstream schools will be faced with the challenges of teaching a child with Down's syndrome. This article attempts to give practical suggestions to those new to the game. It covers the common dificulties experienced by children with Down's syndrome and gives tips on planning your teaching, including the child in classroom activities, preserving the peer group and avoiding adult dependency. It provides useful sources of advice for teachers in the UK and further reading.
Support for Learning 13: 167-174 (1998 Nov)

Differentiation Not Discrimination: Delivering the Curriculum for Children with Down's Syndrome in Mainstream Schools

Alton, Sandy
Teacher advisor for children with Down's syndrome c/o Ormerod School, Waynflete Rd., Headington, Oxford OX3 8DD

Many more children with Down's syndrome are now entering mainstream schools in the UK. This change has implications for schools in understanding the learning profile typical of children with Down's syndrome, thus paving the way to successful inclusion. The article covers principles of inclusion, the early years, the specific learning profile, physical aspects, cognitive aspects, speech and language aspects, reading, number skills, concentration span, structure and behaviour. Differentiation strategies are given for each area.
J Intellect Disabil Res 40 (1): 56-65 (1996 Feb)

Trainee teachers' attitudes to inclusive education for children with Down's syndrome

Wishart JG; Manning G
Edinburgh Centre for Research in Child Development, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Scotland

The attitudes of 231 trainee teachers towards inclusive education for children with Down's syndrome were surveyed in two UK colleges of education, one in Scotland and one in Northern Ireland. While the right to educational integration for children with special educational needs was widely endorsed, considerable reservations were expressed about its implementation in practice. Only 13% of respondents indicated that they would welcome the opportunity to teach in an integrated setting and 96% felt that their professional training did not prepare them to meet this challenge. Many underestimated potential levels of achievement in children with Down's syndrome and over half wrongly associated the condition with very short life expectancy.
Learning 21 (4): 29 (Nov-Dec 1992)

Mainstreaming. Wanted: Just One Friend. Case History

Barringer, Mary Dean

Describes the process 1 family used to facilitate friendships for their 10- year-old daughter with Down's Syndrome. The article explains to teachers how children who are mainstreamed into regular schools can feel lonely without a support network to provide social interactions that might not otherwise occur.
Exceptional Parent 42p (14 Nov 1990)

Personal and Professional Change Associated with the Integration of Children with Down Syndrome into the Public Schools

West, Russell F.; Cummins, Pete
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Conference (New Orleans, LA)

The purpose of this study was to describe the personal and professional changes that occurred when three young children with Down Syndrome were mainstreamed into 'regular' kindergarten classes in Northeast Tennessee. During the 1989-1990 school year, data were collected using participant observation and in-depth interviews with parents, teachers, and principals in three schools. Data were collapsed into four general categories of results, focusing on changes in personal and professional confidence, changes in teaching approaches and strategies, changes in perspectives on integration, and changes in personal beliefs and attitudes. Results indicated that all adults involved in the mainstreaming process viewed the experience positively. All parties gained a great deal of confidence both in themselves and in each other. All those concerned developed a respect for the potential that children with Down Syndrome bring to the regular classroom.
British Journal of Educational Psychology 58 (3): 279-86 (1988)

Integration of Down's Syndrome Children in the Primary School: A Longitudinal Study of Cognitive Development and Academic Attainments

Casey, Wendy; Jones, D; Kugler, B; Watkins, B

Describes British study that monitored and evaluated the cognitive development and academic attainments of Down's Syndrome children ages 3-10 over a two-year period. Comparisons with mainstream schools and special schools are made in the areas of children's expressive language, comprehension, numeracy, verbal fluency, drawing ability, and reading.
SET: Research Information for Teachers 1: 9p (1988)

Adjusting to School: Eight Children with Down's Syndrome

Rietveld, Christine
Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.; New Zealand Council for Educational Research, Wellington

The study compared the adjustment to regular classes (in New Zealand) of eight 6- and 7-year-old children with Down Syndrome (DS) with that of 24 children rated by their eight teachers as being the 'three least competent children in the class.' The study evaluated teacher attitudes, social participation on the playground, and developmental progress. The study found teachers still uncertain about the value of integrating such children into regular classes after 1 year though their beliefs were not always supported by the data comparing the DS children with the contrast children in the areas of time on-task/disruptions, interactions with the teacher, compliance, social interaction, and affectionate behavior and mimicry. There was no support for the commonly held belief that DS children are socially isolated during unstructured time with some DS children showing a greater range of abilities when interacting with peers in unstructured situations than in the classroom. All of the DS children maintained or surpassed their previous rate of progress after 1 year although teachers gave them much more attention than contrast children. Results suggested that integration of these children can be effective but that the services of an itinerant teacher are valuable and the use of novelty encourages more peer interaction in all children.
Exceptional Parent 13 (1): 55-58 (Sep 1986)

Jason Goes to Kindergarten

Elias, Lois; And Others

The article looks at the experiences of a Down's Syndrome child mainstreamed into a regular kindergarten class. Benefits of the least restrictive environment, such as cost effectiveness, are pointed out. Viewpoints of the teacher, the special education aide, and principal are presented.
Exceptional Parent 16 (5): 14, 16-17 (Sep 1986)

I Helped My Son into the Mainstream

Fredericks, Bud

A parent describes how presenting information on what it is like to have a disability to his son's teacher and fifth grade classmates helped his Down Syndrome son to adjust to a new school and achieve acceptance. The success of this strategy should encourage other parents to make comparable efforts.
Australia and New Zealand Journal of Developmental Disabilities 10 (1): 14, 11-20 (Mar 1984)

The Integration of Eight Down's Syndrome Children into Regular Schools

Pieterse, Moira; Center, Yola

Eight Down's Syndrome children integrated into regular classes after exposure to 3-5 years early intervention, functioned within the mild rather than the moderate range of mental retardation, and their social skills and oral reading and comprehension were acceptable.