Adequate intake. A dosage recommendation that may be used on a product label where RDA information is lacking and that is labeled as DV's.
Alpha-Linolenic Acid
A long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid with 18 carbons, 3 double bonds, in the omega-3 family. It is considered essential because it cannot be manufactured by the human body.
Alpha Lipoic Acid
A cofactor of the pyruvate-decarboxilase and other enzymes of the Krebs cycle. It is a mobile component of inner mitochondrial membranes that links the electron transport chain with the complex of ATP synthesis. It also participate in the synthesis of prostaglandins. This low molecular-weight substance is absorbed from the diet and easily diffuses through cell membranes. It participates in redox mechanisms and as an electron donor it is an important antioxidant. It may regenerate other antioxidants such as vitamin E and C.
Alpha Tocopherol
The most common type of vitamin E. It is considered the major lipid soluble chain-breaking antioxidant. It mainly protects cell membranes and lipoproteins from free radical oxidation.
Alzheimer Disease
(AD) Alzheimer disease is a fatal, progressive, degenerative disease of the brain that affects about 11% of all individuals over the age of 60 years .
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Amino acids
The basic building blocks of proteins. There are 20 different types of amino acids that combine in different ways to form the proteins in living things. The amino acids are linked together according to the genetic information encoded in the organism's DNA.
A procedure preformed during the 15th week of pregnancy or later to collect material for prenatal testing. A slender needle is inserted into the woman's abdomen and into the uterus and amniotic fluid from around the fetus is withdrawn.
A molecule that at lower concentration than an oxidizable substrate, prevents or delays its oxidation. The antioxidant possesses a chemical structure prone to react with a free radical at a minimal cost for the organism.
Aortic Stenosis
The aortic valve is stiffened and has a narrowed opening (a condition called stenosis). It does not open and close properly, which increases strain on the heart because the left ventricle has to pump harder to send blood out to the body.
Activity (muscle tone), pulse, grimace, appearance (skin), respiration.
Programmed cell death in response to determined signaling pathways with energy consumption.
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"Disorder of motor planning caused by damage to the motor control areas of the brain; inability to execute volitional movements. Limb apraxia and apraxia of speech are characterized by difficulty sequencing and coordinating movements in the absence of paralysis or weakness of muscles, usually resulting in highly inconsistent performance." (p. 523-524, Lloyd, Fuller & Arvidson, 1998)
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Arachidonic acid
A long-chanin polyunsaturated fatty acid from the omega-6 family. AA contains 20 carbons and 4 double bonds. It is the brain's principal omega-6 fatty acid. Arachidonic acid is found primarily in animal fats and is often too high in modern diets. This fatty acid can be converted into the powerful locally acting hormones, prostaglandins and thromboxane via the cycloxygenase pathway, and leukotirenes via de lipoxygenase pathway. One example is PGE2, which has inflammatory activity. PG and related substrances are involved in many other biological processes from gene expression to blood clotting. Alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, and DHA can counter the effects of arachidonic acid.
Ascorbic acid
(Vitamin C) A water-soluble antioxidant that can by synthesized by many mammals but not by humans. Besides its antioxidant property, ascorbic acid constitutes the substrate in the synthesis of numerous molecules.
Atrial Septal Defect
ASD is a hole in the wall (called the septum) that separates the heart's left atrium and the right atrium.
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Atlantoaxial instability
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Atrioventricular Canal Defect
Also known as endocardial cushion defect or atrioventricular septal defect, is caused by a poorly formed central area of the heart during fetal development. This defect usually causes a hole in the wall (septum) that separates both the atria and the ventricles. The mitral and pulmonic valves may be malformed as well. Atrioventricular canal defect is commonly seen in children with Down syndrome.
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Auditory Discrimination
The ability to recognize and identify sounds, to hear likenesses and differences.
Auditory Figure-Ground Skills
The ability to hear a message even though there is background noise, the ability to separate the important sounds from the background sounds.
Auditory Memory
The ability to retain and recall information.
Auditory Perception
The ability to receive and comprehend words and concepts through hearing.
Auditory Processing Disorder
It interferes with an individual's ability to analyze or make sense of information taken in through the ears. Difficulties with auditory processing do not affect what is heard by the ear, but do affect how this information is interpreted, or processed by the brain.
Augmentative Communication
Systems of adapted technology that encourage and enhance verbal and nonverbal communication.
"Pervasive developmental disorder marked by severe interruption of social interaction. Individuals with autism are often described as being severely withdrawn, being rigidly dependent on routine, avoiding social contact, and showing repetitive, stereotypic behaviors." (p. 524-525, Lloyd, Fuller & Arvidson, 1998)
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A chromosome that is not involved in sex determination. The autosomes of males are similar to those of females. (Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes and two sex chromosomes, X and Y.)
Beta Amyloid Protein
A protein constituted by more than 40 aminoacids that is the main compound of senile plaques, the typical histology lesion of Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome. It appears to be a source of reactive oxygen species.
Teeth grinding, the habitual involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth.
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Chronological age.
A compound also known as vitamin Bt. This substance is required for mitochondrial beta oxidation of fatty acids, carrying the fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane to the matrix, where they are transferred back to coenzyme A by enzymatic procedure.
A family of proteins with protease activity that are responsible of the execution of apoptotic mechanisms.
An enzyme that catalizes de conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.
Celiac Disease
A digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. Common gluten sensitivity symptoms include diarrhea, increased appetite, bloating, weight loss, irritability and fatigue. Gluten is found in wheat (including spelt, triticale, and kamut), rye, barley and sometimes oats.
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Chorionic villus sampling
CVS: A procedure performed between 10 and 12 weeks after a woman's last menstrual period to collect material for prenatal testing. A needle is used (abdominally) or a catheter is inserted (cervically) into the substance of the placenta but staying outside the amniotic sac.
An organized structure located in the cell nucleus, consisting of a single molecule of DNA and many associated proteins, which contains the code for specific genetic information. Chromosomes are located within every cell, and are responsible for directing the development and functioning of all the cells in the body. The normal number in humans is 46 (23 pairs).
Central nervous system.
Coenzyme Q
(CoQ10) Also known as ubiquinone, is a fat soluble quinone and a cosusbstrate of the electron transport chain in the mitochondria. It is also a powerful lipid soluble antioxidant and can regenerate the oxidized form of vitamin E.
The primary organic constituent of bone, cartilage, and connective tissue.
Condition existing at birth, not hereditary.
Cystathionine Beta Synthase
The enzyme that converts homocysteine to cystathionine and then cysteine using vitamin B6 (pyridoxin) as cofactor.
Celiac Disease
A digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. Common gluten sensitivity symptoms include diarrhea, increased appetite, bloating, weight loss, irritability and fatigue. Gluten is found in wheat (including spelt, triticale, and kamut), rye, barley and sometimes oats.
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Nearly 100% of children with Down syndrome have major dental or orthodontic problems.
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Developmental Apraxia
Apraxia in children.
Docosahexaenoic acid. A long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid derived from dietary alpha-linolenic acid. DHA contains 22 carbons, 6 double bonds, and is an omega-3 fatty acid. It is the most important omega-3 fatty acid found in the brain and in highly concentrated in the retina.
Separation of the members of a chromosome pair during cell division.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid. The genetic material of living organisms; the substance of heredity. It is a large, double-stranded, helical molecule that contains genetic instructions for growth, development, and replication. The rungs of this double helix are made of base pairs.
A hormone-like substance that acts as a neurotransmitter, transmitting nerve signals from neuron to neuron.
Down Syndrome
The most frequent genetic cause of mild to moderate mental retardation and associated medical problems and occurs in one out of 800 live births, in all races and economic groups. Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder caused by an error in cell division, when a fertilised ovum, which will develop into the foetus, contains extra material from chromosome number 21. Three genetic variations can cause Down syndrome:
Dietary Reference Intakes. An umbrella term for groups of values (including RDAs, AIs, EARs, and UIs) that specify recommended dosages. Proposed by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences in partnership with Health Canada.
Daily Value. New dietary supplement regulations went into effect in March of 1999 that require labeling of dietary reference intakes (DRI) and which appear as "DV" on product labels.
Estimated Average Requirement. The intake value that is estimated to be optimal for about half of the individuals in a specified group. In other words, the EAR meets a specified requirement in 50 percent of an age- and gender-specific group. At this level of intake, the remaining 50 percent of the specified group would not have its needs met. EAR is one of the guidelines encompassed in DRI established by the National Academy of Sciences.
(Early Intervention) Specialized services provided to infants and young children (up to age 3) to minimize delays in early development. These services include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy/oral motor therapy, and special education. They are provided by the Birth to Three programs.
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A protein substance found in living cells that brings about chemical changes; necessary for digestion of food.
Eicosapentaenoic acid. A long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid derived from dietary alpha-linolenic acid. It contains 20 carbons, 5 double bonds, and is an omega-3 fatty acid. EPA can be made into PGE3, which is an anti-inflammatory substance that helps counter the effects of the inflammatory PGE2 substances. EPA is not found in the brain, but it can be converted into DHA for use in the brain. EPA is important to the brain's blood supply.
Epicanthic Fold
Small fold of skin at the corners of each eye.
A Free Appropriate Public Education refers to special education and related services which are provided at public expense to meet the educational goals defined in the child's IEP.
Food and Drug Administration.
Fenton Reaction
A reaction that generates hydroxyl radical (HO·) through the combination of H2O2 with Fe2+.
Iron bound to the protein apoferritin, one of the main forms of body iron storage.
Phytochemicals widely distributed in plants containing a characteristic aromatic trimeric heterocyclic nucleus. Several flavonoids such as catechin, epicatechin, proantocyanidin, and quercetin have antioxidant properties.
Free Radical
A molecule with one or more unpaired electrons in its outer orbitals.
A sequence of DNA that represents a fundamental unit of heredity. Most genes code for RNA that is translated into protein, but some genes simply code for certain forms of RNA.
Ginkgo Biloba
The extract of the Ginkgo leaves contains flavonoid glycosides and terpenoids (ginkgolides, bilobalides) and has been used pharmaceutically. Mainly used as memory enhancer.
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(Gamma-linolenic Acid) A long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid from the omega-6 family. It is used for increasing the body's PGE1 anti-inflammatory system.
A tripeptide composed by glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine, widely distributed in cells. It participates in various redox reactions, such as the destruction of peroxides and free radicals. When reacting with a free radical it si oxidized to GSSG, and is reconverted back to the reduced GSH form by glutathione reductase. It is the substrate of gutathione peroxidase.
Glutathione Peroxidase
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the detoxifying reduction of hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides using glutathione as substrate.
A physical, occupational and speech therapy treatment strategy that utilizes equine movement.
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A sulphydryl-containing aminoacid derived form the metabolic demethylation of dietary methionine.
Hydrogen Peroxide
(H2O2) a free radical mainly generated by mitochondria or by dismutation of superoxide anion by superoxide dismutase. Through the Fenton reaction H2O2 in the presence of Fe2+ generates hydroxyl radical. H2O2 is catalyzed by catalase producing oxygen and water.
Hydroxyl radical
(HO·) a powerful cytotoxic oxidant produced by the Fenton reaction between hydrogen peroxide and Fe2+.
A condition characterized by lowered metabolic rate and general loss of vigor caused by deficient activity of the thyroid gland.
The federal law (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) supporting special education and related service programming for children and youth with disabilities. This is the reauthorization of the original landmark legislation of 1975 that opened up public schools for all children with disabilities. Also referred to as Public Law 101-476, IDEA reauthorized and expanded the provisions guaranteed under Public Law 94-142 in 1990.
The Individualized Education Plan is the written report for each school year which delineates the goals and special services necessary to meet the child's needs. Parents, teachers and administrators take part in the preparation of the child's IEP for the academic year. This begins when your child turns 3 years old, as that is the time your child's education comes under the auspices of the Board of Education and no longer the Birth to Three program.
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Individualized Family Service Plan. This is the special service plan agreed upon between the Birth to Three-Service Coordinator and the family. This report is done annually until your child reaches the age of 3 years old.
The practice of including handicapped children in regular school and preschool and other community environments.
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International Units. A standard unit of measurement of biological activity that is used for fat soluble vitamins A, D, & E (as well as for some hormones, enzymes, and vaccines). It is an internationally-recognized standard established by the International Conference for Unification of Formulae. One I.U. represents a different amount for different substances. The weight equivalents for fat soluble vitamins are as follows:
Beta Carotene (Vitamin A)      1 mg. = 833 IU
Vitamin D 2.5 mcg = 100 IU
Vitamin E 1 mg = 1 IU
The chromosomal complement of an individual, including the number of chromosomes and any abnormalities. The chromosomes are stained with special dyes that produce distinct banding (striped) patterns. The term is also used to refer to a photograph of an individual's chromosomes arranged according to size.
(Linoleic Acid) An essential fatty acid. It can not be produced by the body and must be obtained through diet. It is of the omega-6 family.
The tendency found in most school-age children to be dominant in either their right or left side (especially for writing). A young child's developing inner sense of the body's two sides. Leads to early gross motor skills involving the cooperative work of both sides (rolling, crawling, walking), fine motor skills, and preparation for complex eye-hand coordination.
Lipid peroxidation
Radical oxidation of lipids. An autocatalytic process whereby polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids undergo degradation by a chain reaction to form lipid hydroperoxides or lipoperoxides.
The process by which toxic forms of oxygen damage fats in the body, most notably the fatty acids in cell membranes.
The Least Restrictive Environment provision of the IDEA states that to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities are educated with children who do not have disabilities "and that special classes, separate schooling or other removal of [...] children from the regular educational environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the handicap is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily."
Mental age.
Mental Retardation
A condition where an individual has a lower-than-normal IQ, and thus is developmentally delayed.
In Down syndrome, this means a a mixture of two type cells in an individual's bodies—trisomy 21 with 47 chromosomes and the normal cell pattern of 46 chromosomes.
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A special type of cell used to transmit information within the brain and between the brain and the body.
A chemical messenger used by nerve cells to communicate with each other.
A genetic term referring to an event which takes place during cell division where the cell with 46 chromosomes fails to divide properly during cell division and a zygote is created with a total of 47 chromosomes. When non-disjunction occurs, one of the daughter cells of the division will have an extra chromosome, the other daughter cell will have one less.
Occupational Therapy
Therapy focusing on the development of fine motor and adaptive skills, such as grasping items, writing, cutting, etc.
Oral Motor Therapy
Therapy focusing on the use of the muscles in and around the mouth and face. Oral motor skills are important for learning to eat and talk properly.
Otitis Media
Pain in the ear, hearing loss, bulging and redness of the eardrum, and often a fever.
Noninfected accumulation of fluid in the middle ear with no observable symptoms.
Characterized by a perforated eardrum and drainage from the middle ear.
More than a normal amount of a particular chemical (protein) is made because there are extra copies of the gene for that chemical
The process by which molecules of toxic oxygen chemically alter, and damage, other chemicals.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
The ductus arteriosus (DA) is a blood vessel in the developing fetus that diverts circulation away from the lungs and sends it directly to the body. The DA usually closes on its own shortly after birth; it is no longer needed once a newborn breathes on his own. If the DA doesn't close, then a condition called patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) results, which can result in too much blood flow to a newborn's lungs. PDA is common in premature babies.
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Peer Review
Analysis of research by a group of professionals of comparable knowledge and expertise in a specific scientific or medical field.
Phonological Awareness
The ability to hear and use sounds effectively.
Physical Therapy
Therapy focusing on the gross motor development of an individual, such as crawling, walking, sifting, rolling over. The therapist will help your child overcome physical difficulties related to low muscle tone or weak muscles.
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The Planning and Placement Team meeting is where the IEP for your child is determined and agreed upon.
Proprioceptive (sense of body in space) information is that which arises for one's own movements, the sensations generated from muscles and joints.
Public Law 94-142
The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. This law mandates a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) for all children with disabilities; education in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE); and Individualized Education Programs (IEP). It ensures due process rights and is the core of federal funding for special education. It was renamed and amended in 1990 and is now known as IDEA.
A molecule composed of amino acids linked together in a particular order specified by a gene's DNA sequence. Proteins perform a wide variety of functions in the cell; these include serving as enzymes, structural components, or signaling molecules.
Pulmonary Atresia
This heart defect is the complete absence of the pulmonic valve and may also include an absence of the main blood vessel that runs between the right ventricle and the lungs.
Pulmonary Stenosis
The pulmonic valve is stiffened and has a narrowed opening (a condition called stenosis). It does not open and close properly, which increases strain on the heart because the right ventricle has to pump harder to send blood out to the lungs.
Randomized Controlled Trial
A research study that uses two or more groups of research subjects. The treatment group receives the experimental treatment while the control group receives either a placebo or current standard treatment. (If the research is also a clinical trial, these research subjects are people.)
Refers to both Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance (US RDA). Dietary intake goals for healthy people in 16 different age and gender groups based on a consensus of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. RDAs serve as the basis for the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances, the Food and Drug Administration's standards for required nutrition labeling of foods. US RDAs are more widely used than RDAs.
Reference Daily Intake. See DRI.
Receptive Language
The child's ability to understand what is being said by other people.
Respite Care
Service provided to families of children who require extraordinary forms of care so that the family can take holidays, etc. and have some relief from the duty of caring for the child.
Robertsonian Translocations
Centric fusions is the most frequent translocations where the two short arms of both chromosomes and the center (centromere) of one of them are lost.
Ribonucleic Acid. A single-stranded nucleic acid (similar to the double-stranded nucleic acid DNA) that contains the sugar ribose (DNA contains deoxyribose). Many forms of RNA, including messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA, are involved in protein synthesis.
Modeling of a learning support activity with cues and prompts, primarily verbal and/or manual. The cues/prompts are dropped as the child becomes proficient.
Sensory Integration Therapy
Therapy focusing on integrating all the senses of the body. It identifies the importance of external stimulation as one part of the early intervention and educational therapy.
A hormone (5-hydroxytryptamine) that acts as a neurotransmitter, transmitting nerve signals from one neuron to another.
Socio-economic status.
The period of time during which a dietary supplement remains sufficiently potent to be effective. The expiration date on a product label should indicate the end of this time period.
Short-term memory
Ability to remember things immediately after learning them.
Sleep Apnea
Temporary stopage of breathing during sleep
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Speech and Language Pathologist. A person who is qualified to diagnose and treat speech, language, and voice disorders.
Speech Therapy
Therapy focusing on improvement of oral motor skills, and to learn both receptive and expressive language.
Imbalance in the muscles of the eye so that they cross and cannot focus properly.
(O2-·) One of several toxic forms of oxygen, referred to collectively as free radicals. It is produced by reduction of molecular oxygen in many biological oxidations. It is scavenged by superoxide dismutase.
Superoxide Dismutase
(SOD) An enzyme of the metal group which catalyzes the superoxide anion, a toxic form of oxygen, and converts it (reduction) to hydrogen peroxide.
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The space between neurons where neurotransmitters are used to communicate.
A condition defined by a cluster of related symptoms or disorders.
Tetralogy of Fallot
TOF is the combination of four heart defects: pulmonary stenosis, a stiffened, overdeveloped right ventricle (known as ventricular hypertrophy), ventricular septal defect, and an overriding aorta that is connected to both the left and right ventricles, instead of draining just the left.
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Total Communication
The use of additional ways of communicating, such as sign language or communication boards, gestures, electronic devices, etc., to expand the conversational abilities of the child with severe speech and language disabilities.
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A coordinated set of activities for a student with a disability designed to promote the transition from school to post-school activities, including post-secondary education, vocational training, integrated employment (including supported employment), continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living, or community participation.
Breaks in two separate chromosomes may be followed by unification of the fragment of one chromosome with the wrong fragment of another chromosome. Translocations in Down syndrome always have a 21st chromosome as one of the two translocated chromosomes. The second involved chromosome is usually either another 21st chromosome or a 14th chromosome.
Trisomy 21
From the Greek tri = "three". About 90% of individuals with Down syndrome this karyotype: a total of 47 chromosomes, instead of the usual 46. Also see: Down syndrome.
Upper Intake Level. The maximum, tolerable, level of daily nutrient intake that is unlikely to pose risks of adverse health effects to almost all of the individuals in the group for whom it is designed. UI is one of the guidelines encompassed in DRI established by the National Academy of Sciences.
University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities Education, Research, and Service.
Abbreviation for UCEDDERS.
Individuals who tend to have gravitational insecurity, use a wide-based gait and may have decreased sense of balance and protection reactions.
Vitamin C
See Ascorbic Acid.
Vitamin E
The generic term for all tocopherols and their derivatives having the biological activity of RRR-alpha-tocopherol. See Alpha Tocopherol.